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Тема: Bulgarian Artillery in WW1

  1. #76
    Любител dibo's Avatar
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    Цитат MCP написа
    In my inquiry about Bulgarian Artillery I have often found a reference to this article (I hope I typed correctly):
    Яко Молхов, “Българската артнлерна през Балканската война (1912 г.)",
    Военнои рически сборник, 57/1 (1988)
    It seems very interesting, but - of course - I could not find it in Italy. If somebody has the chance to meet with it somewhere I greatly appreciate if he can make a copy for me.
    Thanks.
    Българската артилерия през Балканската война (1912г.) - Военноисторически сборник 57/1 (1988).

    From what you have written it should be in Vol. 1 of the Военноисторически сборник magazine for 1988.
    We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are
    ---Anais Nin----

  2. #77
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    Yes, excuse me for mistake. I missed some letters. :1087:

  3. #78
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    Anti-aircraft Artillery

    Germany was the first country that studied the opportunity to have guns purposely designed for combatting balloon, dirigibles and planes. In 1906 at the Berlin automobile exhibition Rheinmetall showed a 5cm L/30 pivot gun mounted on a lightly armoured motor car, while Krupp choose a 6.5cm L/35 gun. The tactic suggested was to deploy these vehicles in likely places and, on the appearence of an aircraft, to drive them rapidly to some point of interception and there open fire.
    At that time War Ministry believed that there were non need for special guns and in 1907 German Army tested as anti-aircraft guns the guns then adopted by field and foot artillery: 7.7cm field gun, 10.5cm light field howitzer and 10cm heavy gun. In spite of the lack of interest shown by the Army, studies went on. Between 1908 and 1910 a lot of new guns appeared. Krupp produced a 7.5cm L/35 gun on wheels and a 7.1cm L/30 gun on a motor car, while Rheinmetall a 6.5cm L/35 pivot gun. This time War Ministry was more interested to and laid down the rules for the Ballonabwehrkanone (Bak = anti-balloon gun). These demanded the calibre and the ammunition of the 7.7cm L/27 field gun and devices for a rapid change in azimuth and elevation. The gun had to be transported by a field carriage or mounted on a motor car with a pivot. Between 1911 to 1914 both Krupp and Rheinmetall produced some different pattern of Bak.

    It was only from 1910 to 1914 that the military leaders of the other major European countries began to examine the prospect of anti-aircraft weapons. In Great Britain Vickers produced a 3-pounder quick firing gun mounted on a Daimler car chassis, while in France for the 75mm Mle 1897 field gun it was developed a high-angle mounting for on the back of a De Dion Bouton car chassis. But at the beginning of the World War 1 only Germany could field a little number of anti-air guns.

    In August 1914 Germany had available six motor Bak with a 77mm L/27, two wheeled 77mm L/27 with pivots, and ten mixed older models of experimental 77mm dating back to 1910-1914. The horsedrawn Bak were emplaced near bridges over the river Rhein at Dusseldorf and Mannheim, at the Zeppelin wharf at Friedrichshafen, and at the dirigible hangar at Metz. The six motorized Bak went to the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th (two) and 8th Army. They were emplaced to protect areas and objects important for mobilization. The development of anti-aircraft artillery in German Army was very quick.

    In October 1914 there were 9 motorized and 27 horse-drawn Bak.

    In January 1915, thanks to a great use of captured guns, there were 97 Bak, mostly armed with Belgian, French and Russian field guns transformed into anti-aircraft gun.

    When World War 1 ended German Army had 2576 Flak (Fliegerabwehrkanone = anti-aircraft gun, from 31th May 1916 the new name of Bak).
    There were :
    - 116 heavy motorised batteries
    - 39 light motorised batteries
    - 168 horse-drawn batteries,
    - 166 fixed batteries,
    - 3 railway batteries,
    - 183 motorised sections;
    - 49 horse-drawn sections;
    - 173 fixed sections;
    - 80 individual motorised veihicles.

    In September 1918 German Army had in Macedonia :
    Bespannte FlakBt. 523, 549, 550, 556 (horse-drawn Flak Batteries);
    Bespannte Flakzug 97 (Saxon), 165 (horse-drawn Flak Sections);
    Bespannte bayer.Flakzug 119, 148 (horse-drawn Bavarian Flak Sections);
    9cm FlakBt. 338 (9cm improvised Flak Battery - Saxon);
    KraftwagenFlak 38, 85 (Flak on motor vehicles).
    These units were to the Flak Command of Army Group Scholtz (Kommandeur del Flak der Heeresgruppe Scholtz). There were also two Flak officiers, one for German 11th Army and one for Bulgarian 1st and 2nd army).
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Click image for larger version. 

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  4. #79
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    ex Turkish Bak guns

    Gun model : Krupp 75mm QF M. 1912
    Calibre : 75mm L/30
    Weight :
    Tube Lenght : 2.250 m
    Shell Weight : 6.35 kg
    Muzzle Velocity :
    Max. Range : 6500 m
    Elevation : + 90°
    Elevation : 360°
    Remarks : Quick firing Bak gun

    Gun model : Krupp 75mm QF M. 1912
    Calibre : 75mm L/28
    Weight :
    Tube Lenght : 2.100 m
    Shell Weight : 6.35 kg
    Muzzle Velocity :
    Max. Range : 6500 m
    Elevation : + 90°
    Azimuth : 360°
    Remarks : Quick firing Bak gun


    General remarks
    Taking advantage of the studies carried out by German factories at the beginning of XX century and of their production of a number of sperimental Bak guns, in 1912 Ottoman Army bought in Germany four 75mm Krupp Bak guns. They had the same performances, but they were not all the same pattern of guns. Two of them had a caliber of 75mm L/28, while the others had a longer tube (L/30). Two of them - one of every pattern - were sent to Odrin in order to defend the fortress by ennemy’s balloon, dirigibles and planes. In 1913 Bulgarian Army captured these two guns. These are the first real anti-aircraft guns in Bulgarian Army. During Balkan war Bulgarian Army had used regular field artillery guns to fire on air targets. In October 1915 they formed the 1st Anti-aircraft Section.
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  5. #80
    Любител dibo's Avatar
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    I have checked the article you asked. Unfortunately it is very difficult to copier than scan it. It consists of two parts - one describing the Bulgarian and Turkish artillery and one describing the use of the artillery during the Lozengrad operation.
    Here is a resume:
    Bulgarian artillery
    In peacetime each army inspection distict has three infantry divisions (two infantry brigades and 1 QF artillery regiments in each) and one 120mm QF Howitzer battery. So bascially the filed artillery in peacetime is 9 divisional QF arty regiments and 3 army 120mm QF howitzer batteries.
    The mountain artilley consists of three QF regiments with 2 arty battalions (2 batteries with 4 guns each) each.
    The Fortress artillery consists of HQ and three fortress arty battalions.
    1910 War time organization - each army should have 1 QF arty battalion with 3 batteries with 4 QF 120mm howizters each - 12 howitzers in all and 1 Not-QF arty battalion with 2 batteries with 6 howitzers.
    Each infantry division is enalrged with 1 infantry brigade and 1 Not-QF arty regiment.
    In practice each peacetime filed arty regiment forms one QF and one Not-QF arty regiment. 4-th, 5-th and 8-th arty regiments form the Not-QF howitzer batteries (4-th and 5-th forming two and 8-th forming one).
    Mountain arty regiment wartime organization - 3 QF battalions with 3 batteries with 4 guns each and 1 Not-QF battalion with 3 batteries with 6 guns each. In practice only 2nd MAR was fully equipped, the other two regiments in 1912 had 2 QF battaliosn with 2 batteries.
    Overall assessment - excellent training (in 1909 each field arty regiment fired 728 practice rounds), the Russo-Japanese war experience well studied, small (4-guns) batteries easy to operate and maneuver, each Bulgarian infantry division has more guns than its Turkish counterpart and nearly as much as a Turkish infamtry corps. Cons - too few howitzers, the heavy fortress arty too little in quantity and outdated (although in 1912 it was planned to buy 360 fortress guns), there is no overall arty commanders on divisional and army levels (the Arty commander on the army level actually deals in logisitics and is not a field commander).
    All in all - 920 guns - 452 QF - 416 75mm and 36 120mm. Fortress arty - 60 150 or 120mm QF howitzers, 129 old guns.
    Service in artillery - 3 years for soldiers (20 years old recruits) than 23 years in the reserve. NCOs are coming from NCO's training commands (4 months training). Officers are mostly from the Military School in Sofia. Nearly all battery and regiment commanders have undergone intensive training courses since 1906 in the special Arty College (bad translation). Some had also training in Austria-Hunagary and Russia miliary schools. Arty engineers are trained in Russia and Italy. In 1912 - 475 arty offciers incl. 21 arty engineers. Reserve officere - either from the Reserve officers school. or NCOs, promoted at the last year of their active service.
    Ottoman Empire
    4 army inspectorates (Istanbul, Thessaloniki, Bagdad, Arzidjak). Each consists of 2-4 corps. Each corps has 3 infantry divisions, 1 rifle regiment, 1 cavalry brigade (3-4 regiments), 1 howitzer and 2 mountain arty battalions. Each infantry division has 3 regiments, 1 rifle battalion, 1 QF arty regiment with 2 battalions with 3 batteries. A rezerve (Rediff) division has 3 infantry regiments and 1-2 arty battalions.
    All in all - 1910 guns (without the fortress and the shore defense arty). 910 are QF.
    Officers trained in a special arty engineer school. Reserve officers - 1 year training. NCOs from special training battalion and NCO's schools.
    The artillery is the best trained branch in the Ottoman army with very good level of training on battery level. Hovever the performance on battalion and regimental level is poor. The maneurability and the coordination of fire is very weak.
    We don't see things as they are, we see them as we are
    ---Anais Nin----

  6. #81
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    Many, many thanks. A resume is greatly aprecied. since my little knowledge of your language and my slowness in translatin from Bulgarian, your translation is welcome.
    Many thanks. :nworthy:

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    Bulgarian Anti-aircraft Artillery

    1915

    Bulgarian Air Defence (ПАО) was born on 9 October 1915 when, according with the ordnance n° 31, it was formed the first AA Battery (ПАБ). It was composed by three AAPlatoon (ПАВ): the first one had the two 75mm Bak seized as trophies in Odrin in 1913, the other two had each two 87mm Krupp slow firing field guns on improvised mounting. This unit was built in order to protect Sofia and on 27 October 1915 it took up it positions in the capital: 1st ПАВ was placed in the aerea of Lozenech, 2nd ПАВ an in Slatinski Redubt and 3rd ПАВ at Konyovitza. Besides these six guns, ПАО had seven machine guns (five Madsen and two Hotchkiss). They were used to protect some important military target in Sofia: Vrana Palace, airport, military arsenal, railway station, "Balkan" Company, gunpowder depot and firearms depot. They have telephone conection with each other an there was one to three infantry platoons ready 24 hours to fire on the enemy planes with regular infantry weapons.
    On the same day the artillery commander of Sofia fortress, Col. Atanas Rakoski, was appointed Head of Bulgarian Air Defence. His first task was to provide the capital and the strategic bridges at Kuleliburgas and Fere-Dedeagach with air defence. 3rd ПАВ was sent to Kuleliburgas, while another platoon armed with two two 87mm Krupp slow firing field guns was assigned to 10th Belomorska Division and placed at Fere-Dedeagach.

    On 30 October 1915 it was organized the anti-air defence of Bulgarian strongpoint along the bank of river Danube:
    - Ruse - six 87mm Krupp with an infantry detachment
    - Svishtov - six 87mm Krupp with an infantry detachment
    - Somovit - two 87mm Krupp with an infantry detachment
    - Lom - eight x 87mm Krupp with a cavalry squadroon.
    The artillery was entirely formed by slow firing field gun on improvised mounting.

    On 15 December 1915 ПАО was composed by:
    1st ПАБ - Captain Bogdan Bonev (Sofia)
    -- 1st ПАВ - Capt. Bogdan Bonev (Lozenech) - two 75mm Krupp Bak (trophies)
    -- 2nd ПАВ - Off. cand. Stefan Balabanov (Kjustendil) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    -- 3rd ПАВ - Off. cand. Todor Shishkov (Kuleliburgas) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    2nd ПАБ (formed on 5 November 1915) - Lieutenant Stefan Oreshkov (Sofia) -
    -- 1st ПАВ - Serg. Georgi Balabanov (Konyovitza) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    -- 2nd ПАВ - Serg. Georgi Nestorov (Slatinski Redubt) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    -- 3rd ПАВ - Serg. Petar Petrov (Telegraph Battalion) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    3rd ПАБ (formed on 1 November 1915) - Captain Ivan Marinov (Kuleliburgas)
    -- 1st ПАВ - (bridge on Arda river) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    -- 2nd ПАВ - (Kuleliburgas railway station) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    -- 3rd ПАВ - (Fere) - two 87mm Krupp slow firing guns
    There were also seven MG half companies:
    -- five were placed in Sofia : at "Balkan" Company, railway station, Vrana Palace, and airport;
    -- two at Kulelyburgas : on the bridge on Martza river and at the railway station.

    =========================

    1916

    During 1916 new batteries and platoons were formed in order to protect every military target in Bulgaria.

    On March 1916 one ПАБ was formed in Kjustendil with guns coming from Kuleliburgas.

    On May 1916 a third ПАБ was formed in order to protect Sofia.

    On August 1916 three new batteries were formed in Sofia:
    - one, armed with two 75mm slow firing guns, from Military School;
    - one, armed with four 87mm slow firing guns, from a replacement battery of 4th Field Artillery Regiment;
    - one, armed with four 87mm slow firing guns, from Sofia Fortress Regiment.
    Four more MG emplacements were formed. They were placed to protect Mint, Military club, War Ministery and railway station.

    On July and August 1916 it was also organized the anti-air defence of Northern Bulgaria :
    - Kaspichan - one ПАВ
    - Razgrad - one ПАВ
    - Drjanovo - two ПАВ
    - Gorna Orjahovitza - two ПАВ
    In order to defend the seashore of Thrace ПАО formed eight ПАВ (21st to 28th).

    =========================

    1917

    On 1 July 1917 ПАО was composed by:
    - Staff with two officiers and four men
    - 9 ПАБ armed with 57 guns
    - 3 machine guns half companies
    together with 19 officiers, 6 (?) NCOs and 614 privates (the number of NCOs seems to me too low and I think it is wrong).
    There were 35 ПАВ and 27 MG emplacements. During July 1917 every ПАВ received one Schwarzlosе MG for its defence (in sum 20 MGs).

    On 25 July 1917 8th and 9th ПАБ were armed with special anti-air guns sent by German Army (76.2mm Russian guns seized as trophies). 8th ПАБ was assigned to Bulgarian 2nd Army, 9th ПАБ to Bulgarian 1st Army (34th ПАВ to 5th Dunavska Division) and German 11th Army (32th ПАВ to 2nd Trakiska and 33th ПАВ to 3rd Balkanska Division).

    In the second half of 1917 a 10th ПАБ was formed.

    On 1 December 1917 ПАО had twelve ПАБ.

    =========================

    1918

    In Juanary 1918 11th ПАБ was rearmed with 76.2mm Russian guns.

    In the first quarter of 1918 :
    - 12th ПАБ was armed with 75mm Schneider field guns.
    - a new 13th ПАБ was formed in Sofia with 1st and 11th ПАВ.
    - 14th ПАВ was rearmed with 75mm Krupp field guns and assigned to Bojurishte airfield.
    - in its place at Konyovitza was formed a 49th ПАВ armed with one 75mm field gun.
    - 3rd ПАВ armed with 87mm slow firing Krupp field guns was formed at Kjustendil.

    On 1 August 1918 ПАО was composed by:
    Staff with three officiers and five men
    - 13 ПАБ
    - 5 machine guns half companies
    together with 25 officiers (among them 7 officier candidates), 243 NCOs and 679 privates.

    On 11 October 1918 ПАО formed its last unit : 50th ПАВ in Ohrid. In order to protect all firearms depots twenty-two MG emplacements were formed.

    From МИНИСТЕРСТВО НА ОТБРАНАТА- ИНСТИТУТ ЗА ВОННА ИСТОРИЯ, История на зенитната артилерия и зенитно- ракетните войскн в Българската Армия, Sofia 1995, pages 13-37
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  8. #83
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    Bulgarian Anti-aircraft Artillery OOB on July 1918

    Anti-aircraft Batteries

    1st ПАБ - Captain Mihail Tatarov
    -- 2nd ПАВ - Off. cand. Tzvjatko Aleksandrov (Kjustendil) - 87mm Krupp SF
    -- 3rd ПАВ - Capt. Mihail Tatarov (Kjustendil) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 48th ПАВ - (Kjustendil) - 87mm Krupp SF

    2nd ПАБ - Lieutenant Stefan Oreshkov
    -- 7th ПАВ - Serg. Georgi Nestorov (Slatinski Redubt) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 8th ПАВ - Lieut. Stefan Oreshkov (Slatinski Redubt) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 9th ПАВ - Off. cand. Nesho Aleksandrov (Plovdiv) - 87mm Krupp SF

    3rd ПАБ - Captain Bogdan Bonev
    -- 4th ПАВ - Capt. Bogdan Bonev (Odrin?) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 5th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Nencho Pavlov (Kuleliburgas) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 6th ПАВ - Serg. Petko Pavlov (Kuleliburgas) - 75mm Krupp QF

    4th ПАБ - Captain Karanfil Georgev
    -- 15th ПАВ - Lieut. Dimitar Lipovchev (Sofia - Malashevtzi) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 16th ПАВ - Lieut. Asen Bakashev (Telegraph Battalion) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 44th ПАВ - Off. cand. Haralambi Avchelov (Sofia) - not formed

    5th ПАБ - Lieutenant Stojan Balabanov
    -- 10th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Izrael Velinov (Alchar) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 13th ПАВ - Off. cand. Petko Rajkov (Konopishte) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 17th ПАВ - Off. cand. Slavko Enchev (Mursat) - 75mm Krupp QF

    6th ПАБ - Lieutenant Stojan Pushev
    -- 12th ПАВ - Off. cand. Ivan Bojchev (Odrin ?) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 14th ПАВ - Off. cand. Stefan Popov (Konyovitza) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 49th ПАВ - Lieut. Stojan Pushev (Bojurishte) - 75mm Krupp QF

    7th ПАБ - Lieutenant Avram Bakish
    -- 18th ПАВ - Lieut. Avram Bakish (Ksanti) - 87mm Krupp SF
    -- 19th ПАВ - Off. cand. Boris Nikolov (Fere-Eksikjoj) - 87mm Krupp SF
    -- 20th ПАВ - Serg. Kolju Radukov (Marljakjoj) - 87mm Krupp SF

    8th ПАБ - 2nd Lieutenant Georgi Balabanov
    -- 29th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Georgi Balabanov (Marno pole) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 30th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Asen Dzherov (Levunovo) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 31st ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Ilja Petkov (Petrich) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak

    9th ПАБ - 2nd Lieutenant Dinko Stoimov
    -- 32nd ПАВ - Off. cand. Konstantin Bojadzhev (Kozjak) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 33rd ПАВ - Off. cand. Malin Topalov (Preslap) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 34th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Nikola Djulgerov (Negovtzi) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak

    10th ПАБ - Lieutenant Gencho Stojkov
    -- 35th ПАВ - Lieut. Gencho Stojkov (Drjanovo) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 36th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Boris Stojanov (Skopie) - 75mm Krupp QF
    -- 37th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Aleksandar Kokenov (Janchina) - 87mm Krupp SF

    11th ПАБ - Lieutenant Dragan Shishkov
    -- 38th ПАВ - Lieut. Dragan Shishkov (Melnitza) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 39th ПАВ - Off. cand. Boris Slavchev (Udovo) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak
    -- 40th ПАВ - Off. cand. Ivan Terziev (Resen) - 75mm Schneider QF

    12th ПАБ - Lieutenant Nikola Markov
    -- 41st ПАВ - Off. cand. Asen Sultin (Angista) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 42nd ПАВ - Off. cand. Nikola Madzharov (Badomi) - 75mm Schneider QF

    13th ПАБ - Lieutenant Todor Kalinov
    -- 1st ПАВ - Lieut. Todor Kalinov (Sofia-Lozenech) - 75mm Schneider QF
    -- 11th ПАВ - Off. cand. Nikola Madzharov (Sofia-Lozenech) - 76.2mm Putilov QF Flak


    Indipendent Anti-aircraft Platoons

    21st ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Pavel Toshev (Drama) - 75mm Krupp QF Turkish
    22nd ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Hristo Vitanov (Buk) - 75mm Krupp QF Turkish
    23rd ПАВ - Off. cand. Ivan Belchev (Angista) - 75mm Schneider QF
    24th ПАВ - 2nd Lieut. Hrabar Popov (Nustratili) - 75mm Krupp QF Russian
    25th ПАВ - Off. cand. Konstantin Disonov (Ksanti) - 75mm Schneider QF
    26th ПАВ - Off. cand. Radoslav Nikolov (Okchilar) - 75mm Schneider QF
    27th ПАВ - Off. cand. Ivan Stoilov (Parna) - 75mm Schneider QF
    28th ПАВ - Off. cand. Georgi Hristov (Parna) - 75mm Schneider QF
    45th ПАВ - Off. cand. Necho Aladzhov (Plovdiv) - 75mm Krupp QF
    46th ПАВ - Off. cand. Marin Zabunov (Stara Zagora) - 77mm Krupp QF
    47th ПАВ - Off. cand. Marin Konstatinov (Sliven) - 77mm Krupp QF


    MG Half Companies
    1st Half Company - Lieut. Angel Ivanov - 8mm Maxim
    2nd Half Company - 8mm Hotchkiss
    3rd Half Company - 8mm Madsen


    Remarks:
    There is a little problem. According with История на зенитната артилерия… , page 26, 4th and 12th ПАВ are placed in Odrin, but I think it is a mistake. It is very unlikely that Ottomans accepted to put two Bulgarian anti-aircraft artillery in Odrin. I think that 4th ПАВ was in Kuleliburgas and 12th ПАВ perhaps in Sofia (but it is not listed in in the map showing the range of fire of anti-aircraft artillery placed in the capital). Are there another Odrin in Bulgaria? "Odrin" may also mean that 4th and 12th ПАВ were armed with the two bak guns seized at Odrin in 1913 (even if these two guns should be in 1st ПАВ at Lozenech).
    The 76.2mm QF Flak assigned to 11th ПАВ were "на цокъл". I don’t have the exact translation, but I think it means something like"on vehicles"
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  9. #84
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    Цитат MCP написа
    Anti-aircraft Batteries
    The 76.2mm QF Flak assigned to 11th ПАВ were "на цокъл". I don’t have the exact translation, but I think it means something like"on vehicles"
    Actually, "на цокъл" in this case should mean "on pedestal" or "base-mounted".
    Никто не обнимет необъятного! - Козьма Прутков
    A який чоловiк горилку не пье - то вiн або хворий, або подлюка. - Невідомий українець

  10. #85
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    Цитат Nick написа
    Actually, "на цокъл" in this case should mean "on pedestal" or "base-mounted".
    Thanks. This means that it is exactly the contrary compared to what I thought. They are fixed anti-aircraft guns. :wall:

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    Allied planes destroyed or damaged by Bulgarian Anti-Aircraft Artillery, 1915-18

    07.11.1915 - a "Farman" plane was shot down near Fere
    06.08.1916 - a plane attacking Sofia was damaged
    24.06.1917 - a plane was damaged and quickly lost altitude near Drama
    26.06.1917 - a plane was damaged and quickly lost altitude near Parma
    24.08.1917 - a plane was damaged and lost stability near Drama
    04.09.1917 - a plane was damaged and quickly lost altitude near Dobro Pole
    06.09.1917 - a plane was shot down near Chiflik (Tepe Chiflik)
    05.09.1917 - a plane was damaged plane and quickly lost altitude
    08.09.1917 - a plane was fallen in flames in enemy teritory
    12.09.1917 - a plane was shot down by 10th ПАВ near Archar
    15.09.1917 - a plane was shot down by 35th ПАВ
    06.10.1917 - a plane was damaged
    15.10.1917 - a plane was damaged and separated from his group
    13.10.1917 - a plane was shot down by 33rd ПАВ with direct hit
    11.11.1917 - a plane was damaged and separated from his group
    09.12.1917 - a plane was shot down by the ПАВ headed by 2nd Lieut. Salabashev (33rd ПАВ?)
    22.02.1918 - a plane was shot down by 35th ПАВ near Drianovo
    15.03.1918 - a plane was shot down near Barnevo
    03.04.1918 - a British plane was overthrown near Levunovo
    25.04.1918 - a plane was shot down near Rasim Bej
    28.04.1918 - a plane was shot down near Gevgeli
    08.05.1918 - a plane was shot down near Gormacheg
    12.05.1918 - a plane was shot down near Barnevo
    04.05.1918 - a plane was shot down near Melnichi
    05.05.1918 - a plane was shot down near Barnevo
    15.05.1918 - a plane was shot down near Tyrnovo
    05.02.1918 - a plane was shot down
    24.06.1918 - a plane was shot down by 10th ПАВ
    04.07.1918 - a bomber was shot down by 10th ПАВ
    09.07.1918 - a plane was shot down by 35th ПАВ
    04.08.1918 - two planes were shot down near Gevgeli

  12. #87
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    ex German Flak

    Gun model : Krupp 88mm QF M. 1916
    German designation : 8.8cm Kw-Flak
    Calibre : 88mm L/45
    Weight: 6125 kg
    Tube Lenght : 4.010 m
    Shell Weight : 9.6 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 718 m/s
    Max. Range - horizontal: 18300 m
    Max. Range - vertical: 6700 m
    Elevation : + 70°
    Azimuth : 360°
    Remarks : Anti-aircraft gun mounted on pedestals on motor cars (Kw = Kraftwagen). This gun was mounted on a 4 wheel trailers towed on specially fitted army lorries. When in action arms with jacks were swung out to form a secure firing platform. In 1916 this gun was extremely mobile and could swiftly be ready to fire. A similar gun was built by Rheinmetall. In 1916 German Army used some of these guns to protect ports of Black Sea (Varna and Burgas). At least three of them were used by Bulgarian Army during, or more likely after, World War 1. They were still in used by Bulgarian Air Defence in 1920s-1930s
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Click image for larger version. 

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  13. #88
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    ex Russian guns

    Gun model : Putilov 76.2mm QF M. 1914
    Calibre : 76.2mm L/30
    Weight in action : 1300 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2.280 m
    Shell Weight : 6,5 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 588 m/s
    Max. Range - horizontal: 6600 m
    Max. Range - vertical: 5500 m
    Elevation : + 65° / - 5° (+ 75° for Putilov 76.2mm M. 1915)
    Azimuth : 360°
    Rate of fire: 12 rounds a minute
    Remarks :
    This gun was basically Russian 76.2mm field gun M 1902 barrel equipped with half-automatic sliding wedge breech and installed on top of column mount suitable for antiaircraft-use. The equipment was transported on a two-wheeled platform. Even ammunition of this gun used same cartridge cases as Russian field guns of this calibre. Russians also soon developed slightly improved version called model 1915 Putilov. Designers of the gun were by Captain V.V. Ternovskij and Engineer F. F. Lender, after who Russians called these also as "Lender's guns". Two of these guns used in a Red armoured train were captured by Finnish Army in 1918.

    Gun model : Putilov 76.2mm QF M. 1900
    Calibre : 76.2mm L/30
    Weight in action : 1020 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2.280 m
    Shell Weight : 6.5 kg (German shell - 6.8 kg)
    Muzzle Velocity : 588 m/s
    Max. Range - horizontal: 6400 m
    Max. Range - vertical: 5900 m
    Elevation : + 17° / - 4° (+ 70° for guns transformed into Bak)
    Azimuth : 360°
    Remarks : Russian Field gun transformed into Bak by German Army.

    Gun model : Putilov 76.2mm QF M. 1902
    Calibre : 76.2mm L/30
    Weight in action : 1040 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2.280 m
    Shell Weight : 6.6 kg (German shell - 6.8 kg)
    Muzzle Velocity : 593 m/s
    Max. Range - horizontal: 6600 m
    Max. Range - vertical: 5900 m
    Elevation : + 17° / - 6° (+ 70° for guns transformed into Bak)
    Azimuth : 360°
    Remarks : Russian Field gun transformed into Bak by German Army.


    General Remarks:
    According История на зенитната артилерия… , page 22 with in 1917 Bulgarian Air Defence received from Germany at least twelve special anti-arcraft guns. They are 76.2mm Russian guns seized as trophies by German Army. These were the only real anti aircraft-guns used by Bulgarian Army during WW1. All others guns were in fact modified field guns on improvised mounting. This sound very strange. According with Nicholas GOLOVINE, The Russian Army in the World War, "Economic and social history of the world war. Russian series", New Haven, Yale Univerity Press, 1931, during the war Russian produced only 20 anti-aircraft guns (the so called "Lender's guns", and received another 36 anti-aircraft guns from its allies. But I think there is a convincing solution for this problem. By spring 1915 German Army begun to use anti-aircraft artillery converted from captured guns. The French 75mm M. 1897, the standard gun of French field artillery, had her tubes rearmed by Krupp to 77mm in order to take German standard 77mm ammunition and became 7.7cm Bak L/35. Until the end of the war more than 400 of these guns served with German Army. The same happened with the 76.2mm Putilov M. 1900 and M. 1902 field guns. Russian guns could not be rebored due to the brittle tubes, so they kept their 76.2mm calibre, and when the captured ammunition had been used up, new replacements were manufactured in Germany. They were mounted on pedestals or on trucks. Trasformed into Bak, they were designed pferdebespannte 7.62cm Bak L/30 russ.00 u. 02. I think that Bulgarian Army received some of these guns. Since this is only a supposition, I offered the technichal data of both guns.

    Pictures:
    I have added four different picture of the so called "special Russian anti-aircraft gun" (специално 7,62-см руско противоаеропланно оръдие):
    1. a 76.2mm gun used by Bulgarian Army
    2. a 76.2mm gun M. 1900 or 1902 mounted on pedestals used by the German Army
    3. a 76.2mm gun M. 1900 or 1902 mounted on trucks used by the German Army
    4. a 76.2mm anti-aircraft gun M. 1914 used by the Austro-Hungarian Army
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  14. #89
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    Field guns adapted for anti-aircraft work

    In October 1915 Bulgarian Army had only two true anti-aircraft guns. In order to assure an adequate protection to the country against air raid, it was necessary to increase the number of guns. Since it was impossible to buy them abroad, Bulgarian Army adopted the same trick used by all the major powes at the beginning of the war. Field guns stored into the depots or assigned to fortress artillery were put on improvised mounting in order to increase elevation and used in the place of anti-aircraft guns. Since at the beginning of the war Bulgaria had not enough quick-firing guns to arm all the field artillery batteries, at first col. Rakovski had to use the old 87mm Krupp slow-firing guns. The low muzzle velocity of them soon led the request of a for more effective anti-aircraft guns. The next step was the use of modern field guns. Every kind of field gun used by Bulgarian Army during the war was in a great or a little number utilised also as anti-aircraft artillery. Like Germany, Bulgaria used also some captured guns: 75mm Schneider Serbian and 75mm Turkish guns.
    At the end of the war, among the guns used by Bulgarian Air Defence only 30% were true anti-aircraft guns, 39% were quick-firing field guns and 31% were old slow-firing guns. The first problem was to adapt guns designed for horizantal fire in order to perform an effective vertical fire. Consequently in order to perform vertical aiming of the regular guns to an angle of 40° - 50°, a pit was dug under the gun trail. Thereafter col. Rakovski developed a special rotating arrangement, made of wood, which allowed for increased elevation angle. The same problem was face up by every Army and a lot of ingenious solution were invented (see the color picture).
    According История на зенитната артилерия…, page 24 during World War 1 Bulgarian Army used guns of four different calibres and of six different patterns:
    87mm Krupp old pattern field guns,
    77mm Krupp field guns, supplied by German Army;
    76.2mm Putilov anti-aircraft guns, captured from the Russians and supplied by German Army,
    75mm Schneider field guns, Bulgarian or captured from the Serbians,
    75mm Krupp field guns, captured from the Turks.
    To these guns, we may add the 88mm Krupp anti-aircraft guns used by German Army to protect the sea-shore of Black Sea.
    The 8cm slow firing and the 8.5cm quick firing guns mentione by История на зенитната артилерия…, page 20 and 26 are two misprints, since during the War Germany did not use guns with that caliber.


    Pictures:
    Unfortunately I could not find any picture of an old 87mm gun adapted for anti-aircraft work by German or Bulgarian Army. Pictures:
    The first picture show a Schneider gun mounted on the special platform developed by col. Rakovski.

    Thanks to Nick for the help.
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    Последна редакция от MCP; 01-02-2006 в 21:32

  15. #90
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    Thank you, MCP

    Excellent job, Marco! Thanks for all your good work!
    Никто не обнимет необъятного! - Козьма Прутков
    A який чоловiк горилку не пье - то вiн або хворий, або подлюка. - Невідомий українець

  16. #91
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    Bulgarian anti-aircraft machine guns

    As well as the guns, the machine guns also found an use, at first temporarily, in anti-aircraft defence. I could not be viewed as a good replacement for guns, but it was intended to be effective against low flying aircraft. To this in October 1915 Bulgarian Air Defence builts its first units armed with machine-guns. During the War the strenght of this branch of Air Defence rose from seven machine guns to five MG half companies (картечна полурота).
    Bulgarian army used Hotchkiss, Madsen, Maxim and Schwarzlose machine-guns. Once more the problem was to adapt them for anti-aircraft work. From the beginning the two Hotchkiss and the existing five Madsen machine guns were put on special mounts. During the war Madsen machine guns usually were mounted on special pedestal (see the picture), while the Maxims were put on carriages or on basaments. But a great number of improvised mountings were used by Bulgarian Army. In order to improve their performances Schwarzlose and Maxim machine guns received also a special circular sight.

    Remarks
    I am not an expert of machine guns, but reading the messages posted in various threads I saw that some members are. So I hope that anybody may add the technichal datas of the anti-aircraft machine guns used by Bulgarian Army in World War 1. The same for the pictures. I added some pictures and I tried to identify the machine guns represented on it. I’m sure that the first one is a Madsen and I have no problem for the German Maxim MG08 on the 1916 pattern tripod with an anti-aircraft adaptor, for the others I hope that my inferences are correct. In particular I could not find a picture of an Hotchkiss used as anti-aircraft machine gun. Of course every corrections is welcome!
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  17. #92
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    Schneider-Canet 150mm Howitzer M. 1905

    This picture shows a Schneider-Canet 150mm Howitzer M. 1905 orderd by Rumenian army but assigned to Belgian Army at the beginning of World War 1. It was used during the siege of Antwerpen. This is the same howitzer used by Bulgarian Army. The shield was added to Bulgarian howitzers when they were improved.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Click image for larger version. 

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  18. #93
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    I'm back. During my summer trip in Wien I could obtain some new information and today I begin to update and correct my previous post. I think that for the beginning of next week I will able to finish the correction of the old posts. Then I hope to finish my job with old pattern and coastal guns.
    Best

  19. #94
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    Obsolete guns

    At the outbreak of World War I, Bulgarian artillery had also a little number of old pattern guns with little or no use in a modern war. They were stored in fortress depots and it is very likely that they did not fire a single shot during the war.
    They were old guns or mortars supplied by Russian Army during the war against Turkey in 1877-78 or captured by Russian and Bulgarian forces.
    Even if they cannot be really regarded as artillery of Bulgarian Army during World War I, I think it may be interesting to add the information I have about them, expecially because recently Bisko was interested in artillery of Liberation War.
    Unfortunately my scanner doesn't work now. So I'll add some pictures as soon as possible.

  20. #95
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    Old pattern Russian heavy guns

    Gun model : 24 pounders long gun
    Calibre : 152.39mm L/21
    Weight : 2108 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 2235 kg
    Weight in action : 4500 kg
    Weight of the platform : 1370 kg
    Tube Lenght : 3.230 m
    Shell Weight : 29 kg / 30.7 kg / 35.1 kg / 35.8 kg
    Case shot Weight : 35.2 kg
    Shrapnel Weight : 34.9 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 325 m/s
    Max. Range : 5300 m
    Remarks : Russian bronze long gun supplied in 1877-78; it seems that in 1906 Bulgarian Army had ten 24 pdrs long or short guns.


    Gun model : 24 pounders short gun
    Calibre : 152.39mm L/14.3
    Weight : 1435 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 1533 kg
    Weight in action : 3500 kg
    Weight of the platform : 1370 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2.180 m
    Shell Weight : 29 kg / 30.7 kg / 35.1 kg / 35.8 kg
    Shrapnel Weight : 34.9 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 225 m/s
    Max. Range : 3800 m
    Remarks : Russian bronze short gun shipped in 1877-78; it seems that in 1906 Bulgarian Army had ten 24 pdrs long or short guns.


    Gun model : 24 pounders mortar
    Calibre : 152.39mm L/9
    Weight : 1425 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 1572 kg
    Weight in action : 3400 kg
    Weight of the platform : 1200 kg
    Tube Lenght : 1.350 m
    Shell Weight : 29.7 kg / 30.7 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 231 m/s
    Max. Range : 3600 m
    Elevation : + 45° / -°5°
    Remarks : Russian bronze mortar shipped in 1877-78; it seems that in 1906 Bulgarian Army had 4 of such mortars.
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    Последна редакция от MCP; 30-12-2005 в 14:58 Причина: added images

  21. #96
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    Old pattern Russian light guns

    Gun model : 9 pounders gun
    Calibre : 106.7mm L/20
    Weight : 574 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 630 kg
    Weight in action : 1500 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2133 m
    Shell Weight : 11 kg / 13.4 kg.
    Shrapnel Weight : 11.4 kg
    Case shot Weight : 10.4 kg / 12.6 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 320 m/s
    Max. Range : 6000 m
    Elevation : + 20° / - 7°30'
    Remarks : Russian steel or bronze gun supplied in 1877-78; it seems that in 1906 Bulgarian Army had 36 of such guns.


    Gun model : 4 pounders light gun
    Calibre : 86.8mm L/20
    Weight : 320 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 338 kg
    Weight in action : 802 kg
    Tube Lenght : 1.740 m
    Shell Weight : 5.7 kg /6.1 Kg
    Case shot Weight : 7.3 kg
    Shrapnel Weight : 5.9 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 305 m/s
    Max. Range : 4000 m
    Remarks : Russian bronze light gun shipped in 1877-78; it seems that in 1906 Bulgarian Army had 60 light guns of Russian and Turkish origin (including the 9 pdrs guns described above).
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    Последна редакция от MCP; 30-09-2005 в 20:01 Причина: added images

  22. #97
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    Old pattern ex Turkish light guns

    Gun model : Krupp 9cm M. 1873
    Calibre : 88mm L/22.6
    Weight : 361.8 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 394 kg
    Weight in action : 1000 kg
    Tube Lenght : 2.035 m
    Shell Weight : 6.7 kg
    Case shot Weight : 5 kg
    Shrapnel Weight : 6.7 kg
    Muzzle Velocity : 442 m/s *
    Max. Range : 6500/6600 m *
    Elevation : + 18° / - 15° *
    Remarks :Turkish steel gun captured in 1877-78. Introduced in 1874 as 9cm schwere Kanone C/73, it was assigned to the field artillery batteries and remained in service with Fussartillerie (foot artillery) until the end of first World War. It was modernised twice: in 1888 by lightening the tube because of less offensive smokeless powder; in 1891 by the use of nikel steel for the tubes.
    * I'm not sure wether these technical datas are correct.


    Gun model : Krupp 8cm M. 1873
    Calibre : 78.5mm L/20
    Weight : 300 kg
    Weight with breech mechanism : 330 kg
    Weight in action : 750 kg
    Tube Lenght : 1.570 m
    Shell Weight : 4.2 kg
    Case shot Weight : 3.5 kg
    Shrapnel Weight : 4.7 kg
    Muzzle Velocity :
    Max. Range :
    Elevation :
    Remarks : Turkish steel gun captured in 1877-78. Introduced in German Army in 1874 as 8cm leichte Kanone C/73, it was assigned to the horse artillery batteries. It was replaced by the the 9cm Kanone C/73/88.
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    Последна редакция от MCP; 30-09-2005 в 19:31 Причина: added pictures

  23. #98
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    Coast Artillery

    Unfortunately I was not able to find adequate informations about Bulgarian coast artillery. So I only list here what I could know, hoping that anybody add what is missing in my account.
    In 1888 Bulgarian Danube Flottilla received by Russian Army five 65mm guns (I think they were built by Schneider, since this is a typical French calibre, often used in ships armed with Schneider guns).
    In 1897 Bulgarian Black Sea Fleet obtained two 240mm L/45 Schneider guns, that were put at Evkinograd in order to defend the prince’s palace there and to protect the Varna bay from ennemy fleets’ raids.
    At the beginning AFIK Bulgarian coast artillery had only these seven guns to defends the coastline. Since Turkish fleet had the full controll of Black Sea, coastal defences were reinforced with 13 batteries delivered from the Shumen (2nd) and Vidin (3rd) fortress battalions.
    In order to increase the defences of Varna Bay the two 100mm guns of torpedo gunboad Nadezhda were removed from the ship and given to coast artillery, but in November 1912 they were mounted on the ship again.
    During the war Turkish Navy made some raid along Bulgarian coastline, shelling the ports and sometimes landing little detachments, that were always easily repelled. The liberation of Thracia caused a lot of problem to Bulgaria, since it had to defend the Aegean Sea coastline, even if it had not even a little ship there. Turkish Fleet tried to take advantage of its superiority landing X Provisional Corps (31st and 32nd Infantry Division with 15.000 rifles, 16 machine guns and 48 guns) at Sarkoi in order to overtake Bulgarian 4th Army deployed in the Gallipoli peninsula. This amphibious invasion failed thanks to the reaction of Macedonia and Odrin Volunteer Corps (February 8 and 9, 1913).
    At the end of the war Dedeagach and Portolago harbours were defended with a little group of 120mm and 150mm guns from fortress artillery.
    At the outbreak of the World War the of Bulgarian coast artillery was not better than in 1912. It is very unlikely that in 1912-15 Bulgaria could obtain new coast guns, so in order to defend the Black Sea and the Aegean coastlines there were only about twenty guns, most of them coming from fortress artillery. Consequently two 100mm guns of torpedo gunboad Nadezhda were removed from the ship. I don’t know where they were placed, but during the war there was a battery of two 100mm guns at Balchik. I don’t know wether they were the guns from Nadezhda or there were other 100mm guns in service with Bulgarian Artillery at that time.
    During the war German Army delivered some 254mm and 152mm Russian guns and in 1916 Burgas was reinforced by a new battery and Varna by two new batteries. In mid 1916 Bulgarian Navy obtained also four 87mm improvised anti-aircraft guns.
    In 1918 most of the 312 guns of Bulgarian 4th Army were used for coast defence (according with Stefan Noikov, Belomorska otbrana alone had 97 guns). 4th Army used also some guns captured in Greek Thracian fortress.
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    Последна редакция от MCP; 12-10-2005 в 22:47 Причина: Added pictures

  24. #99
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    Question Cartridges of Schneider guns

    Congratulations for this exellent theme! :tup:

    I have few questions/remarks. :sm186:

    First, do you have dimensions of cartridge shells for Schneider-Creuzot guns?
    (My information is that Bulgarian & Serbian guns used the same ammo, but the shells for Greek ones was somewhat longer, making them unusable in former two. Considering these were commercial guns, I doubt that any of them use French Mle.97's 75mm X 350R cases). Of course, complete list of cartige shells for Schneider, Krupp & Skoda guns will be most welcomed. (I already have data for Russian guns)

    Second, what about "infantry guns"? Did Bulgarian Army captured/used any 37 mm infantry guns: French Mle.16, wierd Russian M.14 Obuhov or more practical M.15 Rosenberg, or got some M.16 Skoda from Austrians? (Photos of the first & last also needed).

    Third, once again about "Schneider 105 mm howitzer for Bulgaria". I found an article about French authoritatives considering adopting 105 mm light howitzer for their divisional artillery (as Germans done) few years before World War I, "similar to model for Bulgaria". This information leads to the conclusion that Bulgaria had some French-made 105 mm howitzers. I beleive this is just a case of mis-quotation; what makes sense is following: "French considered adopting a 105 mm version of howitzer made for Bulgaria" (this was, of course, calibre 120 mm)

  25. #100
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    Thanks for your consideration of my work.

    Unfortunately I have not all the answers. But I try to tell what I know.

    First.
    AFIK Bulgarian Army did not use the standard French cartridge shells but I have not precise and detailed about the ammunitions used by B.A. This summer I was in French and I went also to Schneider Museum in Creuzot, but I was not able to find the information I need (unfortunately my stay there was very brief). I can attach the information I have about ammunition of B.A. in 1912. You can find some interesting informations about this topic also in pages 82-83 (post 25) of Russian Intelligence Report about B.A. in 1914 (УНИКАЛНА КНИГА ЗА БЪЛГАРСКАТА АРМИЯ В 1914).

    Second.
    Till now I found no evidence of an use of such Infantry guns by B.A. As for Austrian Infantry guns I'm almost sure that B.A. did not received any of them, since they are not listed in a list of artillery weapons (unfortunately without the number of guns sent) sent by Austrians during WW1. But I'm always studying this topic and looking for new informations about.
    About the photos, I'm not sure what you are looking for. Are they French Mle.16 and M.16 Skoda?

    Third.
    Your hypothesis is really interesting and may explain such vexed issue.
    Recently I read that in 1907 when Bulgarian Army decided to buy field howitzers in France, it was in doubt wether buy light 105mm howitzers or more powerfull, but also more heavy and less easy to handly, 120mm ones.
    As everybody knows, at least B.A. adopted the 120mm howitzers. I was not able to know the main features of the Schneider 105mm howitzers tested by Bulgarians.

    Best.
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